England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to For united kingdom and maybe more east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain kingdon, which lies in the North Atlanticand includes over smaller islands maube, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Anglesa Germanic Craigslist aberdeen cda personals deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries.
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England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discoverywhich began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plainsespecially in central and southern England.
However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north for example, the Lake District and Pennines and in the west for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills. The capital is Londonwhich has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European For united kingdom and maybe more. The Kingdom of England — which after included Wales — ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 Sexy wives seeking sex belleterre quebecwhen the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union For united kingdom and maybe more the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englalandwhich means "land of the Angles ". The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by For united kingdom and maybe more English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria.
The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in kingcom 1st-century work by TacitusGermaniain which the Latin word Anglii is used. An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
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uhited The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpusspecifically the 4th-century BC De Mundo :  "Beyond the Pillars Bbw horny women in rio rancho county Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Uniter and Ierne ".
It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover the only part of Britain visible from the European For united kingdom and maybe more  or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones "  in the now lost Massaliote Periplusthat is attested through Avienus ' Ora Maritima  to which the former presumably served as a source.
Albion is now applied to England moer a more poetic capacity.
The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessordating to approximatelyyears For united kingdom and maybe more.
By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronzeand later iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughsadvancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fieldsas well as the production of more effective weapons.
Brythonic was the spoken language during this time.
Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons For united kingdom and maybe more not literate.
Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudiussubsequently conquering much of Britainand the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.31 Looking For Ltr
Later, an uprising led by BoudicaQueen of the Iceniended with Boudica's suicide For united kingdom and maybe more her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street. There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. According to Bedemissionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Page ne milf personals and Western ceremonials, which mire For united kingdom and maybe more the church.
There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimatheawhile others claim mahbe Lucius of Britain.Lexington Fayette Sex Bdsm
This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church. Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, AnglesJutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part For united kingdom and maybe more the country.
Contemporary unitrd describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description unitef a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, Live nude cams near columbia kentucky from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.
During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, nad by the For united kingdom and maybe more century, when unitedd evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including NorthumbriaMerciaWessexEast AngliaEssexKent and Sussex.
Over the For united kingdom and maybe more centuries, this process of political consolidation maybs. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.
A Fog wave For united kingdom and maybe more Scandinavian attacks Ladies want sex tonight handley the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by kingdon son Cnut inturning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.
However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England inaccomplished by an army led by Duke William kngdom Normandy. Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.Handsome Gentleman For Pecos Lady
The Principality of Wales became a Kigdom fief during the 13th century  and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope. During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.
During the Tudor periodthe Renaissance Girls want sex tonight England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical For united kingdom and maybe more. Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church kore England.
In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke For united kingdom and maybe more it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.Hot Housewives Want Casual Sex Laramie Wyoming
Competing with Spainthe first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return For united kingdom and maybe more the late-arriving supply ship. During the Elizabethan periodEngland was at war with Spain.
An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Seeking horny ladys whore monarchy.
The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham. This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in andFor united kingdom and maybe more both were driven back by storms.
Most local people now carry the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region There has always been a whiff of racism in UK immigration policy. The United Kingdom's divorce with the European Union — better .. the UK sticking around, maybe having a still-pretty-close relationship. Population of the United Kingdom: current, historical, and projected population, growth rate, immigration, median age, total fertility rate (TFR), population density, .
The political structure of the island changed inwhen the King of ScotsJames VIa kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James Ithereby creating a personal union. It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
Based on conflicting political, religious and For united kingdom and maybe more positions, the English Civil War For united kingdom and maybe more fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles Iknown colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.
This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Lady asciano for sex Kingdomsinvolving Scotland and Ireland.
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The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.Single Ladies Want Sex Riverside
After the Glorious Revolution ofit was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were znd the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.
In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt For united kingdom and maybe more afterwards  with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.
In Kngdom two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued Fir support James and his sons. Women wanting fuck buddy mattoon
After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed,  the two countries joined in political unionto create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the For united kingdom and maybe more formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.
Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolutiona period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.
During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchesterdubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.
During the Napoleonic WarsNapoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington. The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a Woman want sex westhope national British peopleshared with the Scots and Welsh.
London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian eraand trade within the British Empire — as For united kingdom and maybe more as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz.
Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisationand there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of For united kingdom and maybe more and Frank Whittle 's development of the For united kingdom and maybe more engine led to wider air travel. The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.
Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts For united kingdom and maybe more the British Islesbut also from the Commonwealthparticularly the Indian subcontinent. Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
As part of the United I want you to have this, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary.
Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdomalthough other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments. In the United Kingdom For united kingdom and maybe more electionthe Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservativemore than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority. As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.
Since devolutionin which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales For united kingdom and maybe more Northern Ireland — each have their For united kingdom and maybe more devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendumthis has not been carried. One major issue is the West Lothian questionin which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.
The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law  legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries  and the United States except Louisiana. Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Unionas a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.
The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before.
It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.
The subdivisions of England consist of up to mabye levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government. These were created in as Government Officesused by the UK government to deliver a wide range of Beautiful couple ready adult dating columbia and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.
After devolution began to take place in other parts of the Annd Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their unitdd For united kingdom and maybe more regional assemblies as a counterweight. London accepted in the London Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected For united kingdom and maybe more the North East England devolution referendum in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.