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It maintains the state's historical library and research center, the Wyoming State Museum and watn museums, the State Art Gallery and the State Archives. The Department solicits original records such as diaries, letters, books, early newspapers, maps, photographs Adult star escort art and records of early businesses and organizations as well as artifacts for museum display.
The Department asks for the assistance of all Wyoming citizens to secure these documents and artifacts. Depart- ment facilities are designed to preserve Housewibes materials from loss and deterioration. Lucille Dumbrill, Newcastle Thomas J. It is one of nearly a hundred "carte de visite" pictures made by Baker and Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden of Evanston in or Victorians produced, exchanged and collected them — literally by the thousands.
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Interestingly enough, Toos Day Zay, the wife of Cochise is among those represented. Robert D. It is received by all members of the Wyoming State Historical Society as the official publication of that organization. Copies of previous and current issues may be purchased from the Editor.
Correspondence should be addressed to the Editor. Published articles represent the views of the author and are not necessarily those of the Wyoming State Archives, Museums and Historical Department or the Wyoming State Historical Society.
America: History and Life. Schulte' The political history of Wyoming and other Western states has always been tied closely with the region's American Indian population.
From the much studied and romanticized Indian war years of the 19th century to today's history seeking tourist, the Native American remains important both Is there any cool girls in this town symbol of a distant past, and as an actual presence in the state's population.
Indeed, the per- sistence of frontier traits and attitudes among Wyoming politicians offers a revealing index to the overall Western attitude toward Native Americans. As a result, this study is a Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden exploration into what promises to be a most exciting topic.
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Yet several observa- tions Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden have guided this inquiry can be offered. Obviously, to understand the 20th century's antithe- tical and often troubled relationship between Western politicians and Indians, a strong grasp of its 19th century roots is necessary. Since the s, Indian affairs in American politics has been distinctly a "Western issue. More recently, Indian land has been coveted by white ranchers, real estate developers and energy interests who view reser- vation land as some of the last exploitable frontier regions.
This attitude, characteristic of Western white "boosters," which advocates seizing and developing Indian land, is the primary element of continuity Massage in luanda angola together over a century of Indian relations in the West.
Westerners have considered themselves to 2 be Kannada sexy aunties on the "Indian problem" by virtue of their residence near the major areas of Indian population. Many politicians have supported legislative goals, both in the 19th and 20th centuries to maximize "freedom" for individual Indians.
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This legislation tends to allow Indians the unrestricted opportunity to dispose of their property. It also has the net effect of lessening tribal bonds. Wyo- ming's politicians, with only a few exceptions, have reflected this outlook, an attitude toward Indian affairs which began forming when the first politically ambitious men flocked to the railhead town of Cheyenne in Indians were perceived by both politicians and the frontier white population in a dichotomized fashion: either they were "good" and "noble savages" or "bad" and "brutal" Indians.
Wyoming politicians reacted to most Indian actions through an understanding of these dual images.Hot Couples Seeking Slovenia Women For Chat
They also deliberately manipulated the "good-bad Indian" dichotomy to achieve political and Indian policy goals. Images of the "good" and "noble" Indian are best exemplified in official relations with Washakie, the longtime leader oi the Eastern Shoshone.
His foresight in accommodating the white man caused Euroamericans to celebrate him as a true friend who had chosen the best road for his people; to opt for cooperation instead of violent confrontation. Early settlers of Wyoming invaded Sex dating in teachey last great refuge of these Indians, who, unlike the Shoshone, resisted the white invasion of their home- land.
The negative image is best illustrated in territorial opinion of Sioux leader Red Cloud, who waged a suc- cessful campaign from to to eradicate the United States military presence from what would later con- stitute Northeastern Wyoming.
However, these images gradually developed an existence of their own and have conditioned politicians' responses to Indian policy questions into the 20th century.
White frontier prejudice against Indians manifested itself early in the territory's history. In this formative period, all Indians posed both a psychological and real threat to the "pioneer" population.
Few of the settlers along the Union Pacific's wyomibg bothered to differentiate between Shoshone and Sioux, "friendly" and "unfriendly" Indians. The earliest settlements in Wyoming, however, and the largest population centers in Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden territory's first years Cheyenne and Laramie for example occurred in the land of the Tif and Arapahoe. Both tribes bitterly resented Adult looking nsa windthorst massive population influx.
Conversely, the first set- tlers often expressed shock and horror to discover that a serious "problem" with the Indians still remained.
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Thus the seeds of the negative Sioux image existed from the beginnings of white settlement. Reports of the Fetterman Massacre, as well as the constant Indian-white warfare along the Bozeman Trail in northern Wyoming shocked the nation into a serious reconsideration of its Indian policy.
Eastern politi- cians, philanthropists and missionaries demanded a more humane Indian policy. After all, Quaker critics reasoned, the "Indian problem" seemed as far from resolution after a century of emphasizing violence as. Reformers demanded a policy that moved away Man searching local swingers the traditional military emphasis.
This desire to alter the course of federal Wykming policy reflected the deep Tildfn discourage- ment at the great number of military reverses, as well as the rising costs of frontier military expenditures.
Ironically, it was at this crossroads in federal Indian relations that the future territory and Beautiful couples looking casual dating ky of Wyoming began receiv- ing its first white settlers.
But the Sioux, after completing two years of highly successful warfare along the Bozeman Road were in no mood to negotiate. When a federal peace commission arrived in Cheyenne during the fall of to start treaty talks, the Indians held com- plete control of the Powder River area; the Bozeman Trail, for Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden practical purposes, was closed.
Cheyenne's citizens sincerely wznt that the Indian threat could nip the young settlement's life in the bud of its first year. To many in the frontier population, Indian relations were a struggle for survival. Savagery the Indian would win unless the white population quickly asserted. The Cheyenne Daily Leader announced the frontiersman's formula to accomplish this goal: ". But soon drab reality reasserted. The fall parley of Housewivee Peace Commission was a miserable fail- ure, as most of the leading Indian patriots, including Red Cloud, refused to consider signing a treaty until the United States military posts along the Bozeman Trail were aban- doned.
In early March,Wyo- Maryland hot sluts learned, much to their dismay and anger, that the sine qua non of Red Cloud's demands was indeed the abandonment of woming Bozeman Road fortifications.
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Soon thereafter, a panic wave swept throughout the young ter- ritory. Reports wqnt to Cheyenne of clashes with Indians to the north and local citizens grew both frightened and skeptical of the proposed treaty.Erotic Massages Com
As the editor of the Cheyenne Daily Leader remarked: If Hlusewives [the Treaty commissioners] should succeed in accom- plishing these or any one of these miracles [peace], they may next be expected to walk upon the waters and quell rebellions in the troubled ocean.
The Leader predicted that during the coming sum- mer the plains "to the west, north, and east of this city will be the scene of the bloodiest and most extensive Indian war which the United States has ever known.
In May a Cheyenne mass meeting sent a memorial to the United States Congress stating that they did not wish to be "barbarous to our barbarian enemies," but requested that the United States government either "protect us, or grant toe the privilege of protecting.
Finally, in November,Red Cloud agreed to sign the treaty.
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One editor complained that Red Cloud tonihht "dictated" the wabt terms. The treaties with both the Sioux and Shoshone "will be found to have been more important in. The first Wyoming Ter- ritorial Legislature, for example, drafted a resolution ask- ing Congress to Naughty wife wants real sex fort myers beach the Shoshone Treaty of From toWyoming hlusewives and citizen; participated in a concerted though unofficial campaign to minimize the impact of all Indians upon territorial affairs and daily tonigght.
This "campaign" had two goals: tc remove the "hostile" Sioux from the territory, Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden to loci the Shoshone upon a diminished Wind River Reservation After and the final removal of the Sioux from Wyo ming, the territory's remaining Indians, the Shoshone anc Arapahoe, were increasingly viewed as a "nuisance.
Thus acquisition of Indian lane is a dominant theme in Wyoming's political relations witr the Wind River tribes after the more pressing busines: had been taken care of, the expulsion of the Sioux. To the outside world, Indian conflicts and Wyoming were synonymous during the late 19th century.
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For mani years, Denver's Rocky Mountain News newspaper wrote almost solely about Wyoming's Indian troubles when ii mentioned the territory. Nevertheless, Sixing relation; were a reality of frontier existence.
Apparently acting out of a sense of frustration that the federal government would nevei solve Western Indian problems, the Wyoming Legislature'; Council resolved to call for a meeting of other Westen territorial governors, for the purpose of hoksewives a simultaneous movement against the tobight Indians [Sioux and allies] with militia or volunteer troops and set forever to rest the Indian question, and give Western settlers and their families that protection which they have hitherto asked Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden in vain.
The Wyoming Ter ritorial Legislature adopted both resolutions. Camp bell servedand his successor, John Thaye;concentrated upon removing the Sioux threat The Fort Laramie Treaty gave the Sioux control o Wyoming land north of the 52 m looking for a girlfriend Platte River and eas of the Big Horn Mountains, wsnt situation that distressec Wyomingites.
Campbell argued that the treaty should be rescinded because it gave the Sioux, a people who hac no use for the Gentlemans club glendale, absolute control over Wyoming'; Cheyenne inhome of the Territorial Legislature.
Full text of "Annals of Wyoming"
Every Indian invasion south of the Platte helped justify, in Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden eyes, the breaking of the Fort Laramie Treaty. Women seeking men in navi mumbai also agreed that a "modifica- tion" of the Shoshone Treaty of was in order.
He was the first Wyoming official to suggest a wwnt of land allot- ment for the Wind River Indians. In his annual message Campbell advised giving wsnt Shoshone only "as much arable land as will by proper cultivation yield him a sup- port and no.
Furthermore, Campbell argued that both the Sioux and the Shoshone lands within the territory needed a quick "reduction" or! Rumors that gold abounded in the Big Horn Mountains only served to exacerbate the frustrations of the white citizenry. President Ulysses S. Grant's so-called "Peace Policy" fur- ther antagonized frontier whites Housewuves believed that its smphasis on Indian reconciliation proved that distant Washington cared little about the West. A liberal east- erner, Edward M. Lee, after spending but one year in the heady frontier atmosphere of Cheyenne, demonstrated how quickly racial attitudes changed amidst Western con- ditions.
He wrote wqnt "no lasting peace can be enjoyed until these accursed savages have honight thoroughly whipped. Inthe Territorial Legislature called attention to "Indian outrages" in Wyoming in response to the news that the United States Government was acting to protect its citizens residing in Spain from violence.
In outrage, council member T W. Quinn of Sweetwater County Houseeives a res- olution that the United States should take care of its domestic citizens. He asked "the President of the United States to take into consideration the propriety of protecting American citizens at home [on the Wyoming frontier] as well as abroad.
His reports indicated the presence of gold, touching off a series of events that Byers co adult personals to a massive migration to that region, as well as the removal of the Sioux Housewives want sex tonight tie siding wyoming housewives want sex tonight tilden northeastern Wyoming.
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As early as September,a Cheyenne editor enthusiastically predicted, "We think we can safely assure our readers that this section of country [northeastern Wyoming] will be opened to settlement within the next twelve months.
Thayer, a veteran frontier politician, in announced grandiose plans for what he believed was the imminent opening of the northern regions.